Interesting hibernate transaction issue

I’m working on a new Grails based project and came across a transaction issue. The application is an ecommerce app and as such the placing of the order has a lot going on that should all reside in a transaction.

Being a Grails app I decided to put the processing inside a transactional service method. So far so good. The flow looks something like this:

  1. Create billing address
  2. Create credit card
  3. Assign billing address to card
  4. Create shipping address
  5. Loop through the cart items and for each item find stock(inventory) to fulfill each
  6. Mark the stock as sold as applied
  7. Add each order item to the order
  8. Assign order to customer
  9. Save order and customer
  10. That is a little oversimplified, but you get the idea. So, what was the problem?

    The problem came in during the select for the stock. This select would cause a hibernate exception about the address being a transient object. Well that made no sense at all.

    At first I started down the road of abandoning the whole transaction thing and doing it manually. Naturally that was ugly and very error prone, so I did some research to find out what the cause might be. Came up empty.

    My gut said that a select should not cause a problem with unsaved data. Then I thought that maybe hibernate was enforcing some sort of isolation level mechanism. Most of us never bother with database isolation levels (and fewer even know what they are sadly enough), but perhaps that was causing it. So what I did was move all the save() calls from the end to where they were being used.

    In other words I called save on the two addresses and the credit card before the loops on getting and assigning stock.

    Worked like a charm. I now have the whole thing in a transaction as it should be.

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    I don’t understand then line “My gut said that a select should not cause a problem with unsaved data.”.

    What select are you actually doing, I assume a select for the address. If so then then error makes sense as you are trying to query something that only hibernate knows about and has not been sent to the hibernate session or database yet. i.e. If you have not called save then this object is not known to hibernates session.

    As I understand it, and someone please correct me if I’m wrong, the method simple tells hibernate that sometime in the future it wants this object to be created in the database. Various things can happen which prevent this e.g. exception which cause a rollback of the session. In addition there is the session.flush method which sends current updates e.g. insert into …, to the database within the databases transaction. This allows you to query objects, user HSQL or raw queries, you have just created but without actually commiting them to the database until the transaction is complete (These would also be rolled back by the Database transaction in event of an exception).

    However in my experience, again someone please correct me if this is wrong, but you usually get “transient object” exceptions when you have not, or can not, setup the relationships between your object correctly in hibernate configuration. E.g. Using Collections, Set with the correct inverse argument and many to one relationships. Also check that you have the correct cascade parameters as this will cause an transiant objects to be persisted even without a save command for them.

    - Retrieve Customer
    - Create Order (No save)
    - Assign Order to Customer
    - Save Customer
    If your Customer has a collection of orders and order has a customer in your hibernate mapping and the orders collection has inverse=true and casade of save-update then the newly created order will be created.

    However if you are expecting Customers to have lots of orders you might not want to load them all in a collection and therefore only have the many-to-one relation on the Order with cascase set to update the customers.

    This post explains it better
    especially the summary
    – always provide parent.addChild which updates both ends of the relationship
    – always set inverse to true on bidirectional one–to–many
    – make sure you understand the difference between cascades and inverse ;)

    If you already know all this stuff then ignore this comment but it might be useful for others with similar problems.

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